In my last column I wrote about the report Pathways to Zero Carbon Sheffield, commissioned by Sheffield Council from Arup. The final part of the report is due soon. I have been gauging opinions about it. Does it go far enough? Will it be possible to meet its targets?
One of the most significant changes proposed in the report is to the way we heat our homes. We can’t continue to burn natural gas if we are to meet our Paris commitments to restrict global heating to 1.5 degrees. So the report advocates fitting 200,000 air source heat pumps in our homes by 2030. This is not out of step with Government policy. Boris Johnson’s Ten Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution includes measures to replace 600,000 gas boilers with air source heat pumps every year from 2028, though the Government leaves open the possibility of heating homes with Hydrogen fuel.
To convert our homes to renewable energy will be a huge task, reminiscent of the days when houses were converted from coal to central heating. First we need to train the trainers. The trainers then need to re-skill the heating engineers working for the energy companies and local plumbing firms. We will need thousands of new apprentices who will need three years training.
I spoke to Paul Leedham, Chair of Training for the Ground Source Heat Pump Association who also runs Matrix Energy Systems in Sheffield. He believes it will be possible to scale up the industry and is already considering how to do it. Paul has a vision for our region to become a centre of excellence for the heat pump industry. He envisages a “Renewable Valley” where we can manufacture the products needed to supply this energy revolution, creating thousands of jobs and ensuring the UK has a reliable supply of the products we will need. Renewable Valley would also be where Universities and Colleges offer the training required for this new generation of heating installers. I have written to Dan Jarvis, the City Region Mayor, to see if he shares this vision and will be able to offer the funding necessary to kick start it.
Fitting the air source heat pumps is only part of the problem though. Since they work at lower temperatures than gas boilers, a home must be sufficiently insulated. The heat lost through the walls, roof and floors must be minimised to enable efficient operation, so the city will need a massive programme to retrofit our homes.
Meanwhile 1.7 million gas boilers are installed in UK homes every year. This has to stop now! The Star has been publishing full page adverts for the Government scheme which offers free gas boilers to households on benefits. It is time to scrap this scheme and offer renewable energy systems instead.
Other reactions to the report came from Green New Deal South Yorkshire and Extinction Rebellion. GND UK commented “We think that Pathways to Net Zero is a good start, it’s very detailed on retrofit, heat pumps and solar energy, including costs and numbers of households. On the other hand it does not adequately cover the Nature Recovery or food or consumerism. For example, developing nature friendly farming could help nature recovery significantly and create local jobs.”
Food is a massive issue and the Council could be influential in helping us to reduce the amount of meat in our diet and hence reduce our carbon emissions. Reducing the amount of meat served in school dinners and increasing the vegetarian and vegan options would make a big difference.
Darcy White and Ci Davis from XR Sheffield had many criticisms of the report and agree with Green New Deal concerning consumerism. “There is no discussion of fundamental problems associated with growth and consumption – while there is emphasis on local people needing to be educated and made aware of the seriousness of the disaster there appears to be an unwillingness to direct them to the root cause – overconsumption and the impossibility of growth on a finite planet.”
“It is almost certainly too late to achieve the Paris target of a 1.5 degrees limit – so to have a chance of limiting to below 2 degrees it is essential that we ACT NOW. This requires nothing short of maximum reductions of all forms of carbon within the city region without delay.”
Despite its shortcomings the report is a significant start, and gives the Council an action plan to follow. Campaigners need to support politicians and businesses to make it a reality. Activists will continue to work for more action to prevent climate catastrophe, but let’s get on with the massive tasks detailed in the report too. Hopefully the new Red Green administration will be informing us how this will be taken forward.
Reply from the Mayor’s Office
Thank you for your email addressed to the Mayor who has asked me to respond on his behalf;
As you rightly point out decarbonisation of domestic, commercial and industrial heating is a major challenge not only for our region but the country as a whole.
Identifying the pathways to decarbonisation highlights that neither heatpumps nor hydrogen will provide the answer alone, and each of those technologies will require additional modifications to users or infrastructure to enable their widespread use.
In housing, for example, we are working with our partners in the Local Authorities and educational establishments to determine how a large scale retrofit programme can be undertaken, what solutions can be deployed, and how they can be funded. Importantly how can we ensure that the transition to low carbon heating provision does not disadvantage those who are already in, or at risk from, fuel poverty.
To come to the main point of your email, the full supply chain issue has been identified as a potential risk in our conversion to low carbon technologies, both the supply of equipment, the installation, and ongoing maintenance. The need for a market to stimulate the manufacturers, trainers and tradespeople to action is also recognised.
I am aware of Paul Leedham’s vision to boost the training capability of the region to act as a spearhead for investment in the region in the Heat Pump sector and we have been working with him to see how that vision could be realised. We are also working with the University of Sheffield on how best we build the market data to catalyse the wider supply chain.
Whilst we by no means have all the answers in place, we are taking the first steps towards being able to implement solutions at scale which will meet the targets we have set ourselves as a region.
Net Zero Project Director
Mayoral Combined Authority Executive